test case

noun
1.
a typical case whose court decision may be interpreted as a precedent for application in future similar cases.
2.
a legal action taken, sometimes deliberately by agreement of both parties, with a special view to determining the position of the law on some matter, as the constitutionality of a statute.

Origin:
1890–95

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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
test case
 
n
a legal action that serves as a precedent in deciding similar succeeding cases

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Example sentences
Fixing the delta would serve as a valuable test case for the country and the
  world.
View the current load guarantee program as a test case for the next few years.
Perhaps gasoline prices will be the first test case.
The opinion here in that past is that nobody gets sued, but you probably don't
  want to be a test case.
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