the elder


Marcus Porcius [pawr-shee-uhs, -shuhs] , ("the Elder"or"the Censor") 234–149 b.c, Roman statesman, soldier, and writer.
his great-grandson, Marcus Porcius ("the Younger") 95–46 b.c, Roman statesman, soldier, and Stoic philosopher. Unabridged


Lucas ("the Elder") 1472–1553, German painter and graphic artist.
his son, Lucas the Younger, 1515–86, German painter and graphic artist.


("the Elder"or"the Great") c600–529 b.c, king of Persia 558?–529: founder of the Persian empire.
("the Younger") 424?–401 b.c, Persian prince and satrap: leader of the armed conspiracy against his brother King Artaxerxes II.
a male given name: from an Old Persian word meaning “throne.”


[dahy-uh-nish-ee-uhs, -nis-, -nish-uhs, -nahy-see-uhs]
("the Elder") 431?–367 b.c, Greek soldier: tyrant of Syracuse 405–367.
Saint, died a.d. 268, pope 259–268.


[hohl-bahyn; German hawl-bahyn]
Hans [hahns] , ("the elder") 1465?–1524, German painter.
his son, Hans ("the younger") 1497?–1543, German painter who worked chiefly in England.

Le Nain

[luh nan]
Antoine [ahn-twan] , ("the Elder") 1588?–1648, and his two brothers Louis [lwee] (“the Roman” ), 1593?–1648, and Mathieu [ma-tyœ] 1607–77, French painters.


[med-i-chee; Italian me-dee-chee]
Catherine de', Catherine de Médicis.
Cosmo or Cosimo de' [kawz-maw or kaw-zee-maw de] , ("the Elder") 1389–1464, Italian banker, statesman, and patron of art and literature.
Cosmo or Cosimo de' ("the Great") 1519–74, duke of Florence and first grand duke of Tuscany.
Giovanni de' [jaw-vahn-nee de] , Leo X.
Giulio de' [joo-lyaw de] , Clement VII.
Lorenzo de' [law-ren-tsaw de] , ("Lorenzo the Magnificent") 1449–92, poet and patron of the arts and literature: ruler of Florence 1478–92 (father of Leo X).
Maria de' [muh-ree-uh duh; Italian mah-ree-ah de] , Marie de Médicis.

Medicean [med-i-see-uhn, chee-uhn] , adjective


("the Elder"; Gaius Plinius Secundus) a.d. 23–79, Roman naturalist, encyclopedist, and writer.
his nephew (“the Younger,” Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus ) a.d. 62?–c113, Roman writer, statesman, and orator.

Plinian, adjective


[ten-yerz, tuh-neerz; Flemish tuh-neers; French te-nyey]
David [dey-vid; Flemish dah-vit; French dah-veed] , ("the Elder") 1582–1649, Flemish painter and engraver.
his son, David ("the Younger") 1610–90, Flemish painter. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
Cato (ˈkeɪtəʊ)
1.  Marcus Porcius (ˈmɑːkəsˈpɔːʃɪəs), known as Cato the Elder or the Censor. 234--149 bc, Roman statesman and writer, noted for his relentless opposition to Carthage
2.  his great-grandson, Marcus Porcius, known as Cato the Younger or Uticensis. 95--46 bc, Roman statesman, general, and Stoic philosopher; opponent of Catiline and Caesar

Cranach (German ˈkraːnax)
Lucas (ˈluːkas), known as the Elder, real name Lucas Müller. 1472--1553, German painter, etcher, and designer of woodcuts

Cyrus (ˈsaɪrəs)
1.  known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder. died ?529 bc, king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire
2.  anabasis See also katabasis called the Younger. died 401 bc, Persian satrap of Lydia: revolted against his brother Artaxerxes II, but was killed at the battle of Cunaxa

Dionysius (ˌdaɪəˈnɪsɪəs)
called the Elder. ?430--367 bc, tyrant of Syracuse (405--367), noted for his successful campaigns against Carthage and S Italy

Holbein (German ˈhɔlbain)
1.  Hans (hans), known as Holbein the Elder. 1465-- 1524, German painter
2.  his son, Hans, known as Holbein the Younger. 1497--1543, German painter and engraver; court painter to Henry VIII of England (1536--43). He is noted particularly for his portraits, such as those of Erasmus (1524; 1532) and Sir Thomas More (1526)

Medici (ˈmɛdɪtʃɪ, məˈdiːtʃɪ, Italian ˈmɛːditʃi, medisis)
1.  an Italian family of bankers, merchants, and rulers of Florence and Tuscany, prominent in Italian political and cultural history in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, including
2.  Catherine de' (kaˈtriːn de). See Catherine de' Medici
3.  Cosimo I (ˈkɔːzimo), known as Cosimo the Great. 1519--74, duke of Florence and first grand duke of Tuscany (1569--74)
4.  Cosimo de', known as Cosimo the Elder. 1389--1464, Italian banker, statesman, and patron of arts, who established the political power of the family in Florence (1434)
5.  Giovanni de', (dʒoˈvanni de). See Leo X
6.  Giulio de' (ˈdʒuːljo de). See Clement VII
7.  Lorenzo de' (loˈrɛntso de), known as Lorenzo the Magnificent. 1449--92, Italian statesman, poet, and scholar; ruler of Florence (1469--92) and first patron of Michelangelo
8.  Maria de' (maˈriːa de). See Maria de' Medici

Pliny (ˈplɪnɪ)
1.  known as Pliny the Elder. Latin name Gaius Plinius Secundus. 23--79 ad, Roman writer, the author of the encyclopedic Natural History (77)
2.  his nephew, known as Pliny the Younger. Latin name Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus. ?62--?113 ad, Roman writer and administrator, noted for his letters

Teniers (ˈtɛnɪəz)
David (ˈdaːvɪt), called the Elder, 1582--1649, and his son David, called the Younger, 1610--90, Flemish painters

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

L., from Gk. Kyros, from O.Pers. Kurush, a name of unknown etymology. In Heb., Koresh, and in that form taken c.1990 by Wayne Howell of Texas, U.S., when he became head of the Branch Davidian cult there.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
Cato [(kay-toh)]

A politician of ancient Rome, known for his insistence that Carthage was Rome's permanent enemy. He had a custom of ending all his speeches in the Roman senate with the words “Carthage must be destroyed.”

Medici [(med-uh-chee)]

A family of skilled politicians and patrons of the arts who lived in Florence, Italy, during the Renaissance. (See Lorenzo de Medici.)

Note: The family produced two queens of France: Catherine, in the sixteenth century, and Marie, in the seventeenth.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Bible Dictionary

Cyrus definition

(Heb. Ko'resh), the celebrated "King of Persia" (Elam) who was conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of liberation to the Jews (Ezra 1:1, 2). He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of Persia, and was born about B.C. 599. In the year B.C. 559 he became king of Persia, the kingdom of Media being added to it partly by conquest. Cyrus was a great military leader, bent on universal conquest. Babylon fell before his army (B.C. 538) on the night of Belshazzar's feast (Dan. 5:30), and then the ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to his empire (cf., "Go up, O Elam", Isa.21:2). Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus was to them as a "shepherd" (Isa. 44:28; 45:1). God employed him in doing service to his ancient people. He may posibly have gained, through contact with the Jews, some knowledge of their religion. The "first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:1) is not the year of his elevation to power over the Medes, nor over the Persians, nor the year of the fall of Babylon, but the year succeeding the two years during which "Darius the Mede" was viceroy in Babylon after its fall. At this time only (B.C. 536) Cyrus became actual king over Palestine, which became a part of his Babylonian empire. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem marked a great epoch in the history of the Jewish people (2 Chr. 36:22, 23; Ezra 1:1-4; 4:3; 5:13-17; 6:3-5). This decree was discovered "at Achmetha [R.V. marg., "Ecbatana"], in the palace that is in the province of the Medes" (Ezra 6:2). A chronicle drawn up just after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of Nabonidus (Nabunahid), the last king of Babylon, and of the fall of the Babylonian empire. In B.C. 538 there was a revolt in Southern Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the north. In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at Opis, and immediately afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the conqueror. Gobryas (Ugbaru), the governor of Kurdistan, was then sent to Babylon, which surrendered "without fighting," and the daily services in the temples continued without a break. In October, Cyrus himself arrived, and proclaimed a general amnesty, which was communicated by Gobryas to "all the province of Babylon," of which he had been made governor. Meanwhile, Nabonidus, who had concealed himself, was captured, but treated honourably; and when his wife died, Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, conducted the funeral. Cyrus now assumed the title of "king of Babylon," claimed to be the descendant of the ancient kings, and made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he allowed the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to return to their old homes, carrying with them the images of their gods. Among these populations were the Jews, who, as they had no images, took with them the sacred vessels of the temple.

Dionysius definition

the Areopagite, one of Paul's converts at Athens (Acts 17:34).

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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