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in economics, an effort to explain the principles by which a business firm decides how much of each commodity that it sells (its "outputs" or "products") it will produce, and how much of each kind of labour, raw material, fixed capital good, etc., that it employs (its "inputs" or "factors of production") it will use. The theory involves some of the most fundamental principles of economics. These include the relationship between the prices of commodities and the prices (or wages or rents) of the productive factors used to produce them and also the relationships between the prices of commodities and productive factors, on the one hand, and the quantities of these commodities and productive factors that are produced or used, on the other