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any of about 35 species constituting the songbird family Pachycephalidae (order Passeriformes), considered by some authors to be a subfamily of Muscicapidae. Thickheads have heavy-looking, seemingly neckless foreparts and are named alternatively for their loud, melodious voices. Thickheads are insectivorous inhabitants of mangrove swamps, scrublands, and open forests from southern Asia to southwestern Pacific islands and Australia. Most are 15 to 18 centimetres (6 or 7 inches) long. In the main genus, Pachycephala, males of most species are yellow and green, with black, white, or reddish-brown markings. The most westerly form is the gray thickhead, or mangrove whistler (P. cinerea), found from India to Malaysia. The golden whistler (P. pectoralis) ranges from Australia to the Fiji islands and the Malay Peninsula (about 80 races). The rufous whistler (P. rufiventris), common throughout Australia and in New Guinea and nearby islands, is also called echong, after its song, and mock whipbird.