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thorium silicate, ThSiO4, one of the most important thorium minerals. Almost always altered by hydration, it occurs in syenite near Brevik, Nor., and in the gem gravels of Sri Lanka. Thorite is mined commercially in the United States at Cripple Creek, Colo., and at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Although the mineral is usually light brown, an orange-yellow gem variety known as orangite occurs in Madagascar. For detailed physical properties, see silicate mineral (table)