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city, capital of Trabzon il (province), northeastern Turkey. It lies on a wide bay on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea backed by high ranges of the Pontic Mountains, which separate it from the central Anatolian Plateau. The heart of the city is on a triangle of tableland between two deep ravines, with remains of an ancient Roman-built harbour at its base. At its southern end stands a ruined citadel. The city centre is enclosed on the east and west by walls that date from Byzantine times. The commercial quarter is centred around a bazaar and park in the eastern part of the city near the old Genoese castle of Leontocastron; east of this lies the harbour.