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a penal appliance introduced in 1818 by the British engineer Sir William Cubitt (1785-1861) as a means of usefully employing convicts. Designed in some cases to handle as many as 40 convicts, the device was a wide hollow cylinder, usually composed of wooden steps built around a cylindrical iron frame. As the device began to rotate, each prisoner was forced to continue stepping along the series of planks. The power generated by the treadwheel was commonly used to grind corn and pump water, although some served no purpose at all other than punishment. The use of treadwheels was abolished in Britain by the Prisons Act of 1898. See also forced labour.