[too-bur-kyuh-loh-sis, tyoo-]
noun Pathology.
an infectious disease that may affect almost any tissue of the body, especially the lungs, caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and characterized by tubercles.
this disease when affecting the lungs; pulmonary phthisis; consumption.
any disease caused by a mycobacterium.
Also called TB (for defs 1, 2).

1855–60; < Neo-Latin tūberculōsis; see tubercle, -osis

antituberculosis, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
tuberculosis (tjʊˌbɜːkjʊˈləʊsɪs)
consumption, Also called: phthisis, TB a communicable disease caused by infection with the tubercle bacillus, most frequently affecting the lungs (pulmonary tuberculosis)
[C19: from New Latin; see tubercle, -osis]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1860, from Mod.L., from L. tuberculum "small swelling, pimple," dim. of tuber "lump" (see tuber) + -osis, a suffix of Gk. origin. So called in ref. to the tubercules (1678) which form in the lungs. Originally in ref. to any disease characterized by tubercules; since the discovery
of the tubercule bacillus by Koch (1882) restricted to disease caused by this.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

tuberculosis tu·ber·cu·lo·sis (tu-bûr'kyə-lō'sĭs, tyu-)
Abbr. TB, T.B.

  1. An infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the tubercle bacillus and characterized by the formation of tubercles on the lungs and other tissues of the body, often developing long after the initial infection.

  2. tuberculosis of the lungs, characterized by the coughing up of mucus and sputum, fever, weight loss, and chest pain.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
tuberculosis   (t-bûr'kyə-lō'sĭs)  Pronunciation Key 
An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is transmitted through inhalation and is characterized by cough, fever, shortness of breath, weight loss, and the appearance of inflammatory substances and tubercles in the lungs. Tuberculosis is highly contagious and can spread to other parts of the body, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Although the incidence of the disease has declined since the introduction of antibiotic treatment in the 1950's, it is still a major public-health problem throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
tuberculosis [(tuh-bur-kyuh-loh-sis)]

An infectious disease caused by bacteria that mainly attack the lungs. The disease is characterized by the formation of patches, called tubercles, that appear in the lungs and, in later stages, the bones, joints, and other parts of the body. Tuberculosis is treated with combinations of antibiotics and is no longer considered a major health problem in industrialized countries. It was formerly called consumption.

Note: Years ago, tuberculosis (consumption) was a major killer; it often figures in literature and drama.
Note: In recent years, the incidence of tuberculosis has been on the increase in the United States, particularly in large cities, mainly because the strains of the bacterium have developed resistance to antibiotics.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Radiologists have already identified signs of tuberculosis or a fungal lung
The decline in the nation's tuberculosis rate is slowing.
Leprosy brings lingering misery, and tuberculosis can last for years.
Researchers may have glimpsed a means by which the tuberculosis bacterium could
  adapt itself to different human populations.
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