basic element in modern letterpress printing. The problem of mechanizing typesetting was solved in the 19th century by devising machines that could cast type from matrices, or molds. The first to be successful was that of Ottmar Mergenthaler, German-born American inventor, which cast thin slugs of a molten, fast-cooling alloy from brass matrices of characters activated by a typewriter-like keyboard; each slug represented a column line of type. The slug could be used either directly for printing or for producing a matrix of a page to be printed; after use it could be melted for reuse. Mergenthaler's Linotype (q.v.) machine was patented in 1884; in 1885 another American inventor, Tolbert Lanston, perfected the Monotype (q.v.), a machine in which type is cast in individual letters. Both machines were made possible by the development of machine tools, specifically, the mechanical punch cutter. A third process, the Intertype (q.v.), developed later, also sets type by the line. Linotype and Intertype are economically advantageous in newspaper and in most book and magazine printing. Monotype is used if tighter or more irregular spacing is needed, as in catalogs; it is also used for some book and magazine work. All modern machines have great flexibility in respect to line widths, type fonts, and type sizes.