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governor

[guhv-er-ner, ‐uh-ner] /ˈgʌv ər nər, ‐ə nər/
noun
1.
the executive head of a state in the U.S.
2.
a person charged with the direction or control of an institution, society, etc.:
the governors of a bank; the governor of a prison.
3.
Also called governor general. the representative of the crown, as in the Commonwealth of Nations.
4.
a ruler or chief magistrate appointed to govern a province, town, fort, or the like.
5.
Machinery. a device for maintaining uniform speed regardless of changes of load, as by regulating the supply of fuel or working fluid.
6.
British Informal.
  1. one's father.
  2. one's employer.
  3. any man of superior rank or status.
Origin
1250-1300
1250-1300; Middle English governour < Old French governeor, gouverneur < Latin gubernātōrem, accusative of gubernātor = gubernā(re) to steer, govern + -tor -tor
Related forms
subgovernor, noun
undergovernor, noun
Pronunciation note
In governor, the process of dissimilation—the tendency for neighboring like sounds to become unlike or for one of them to disappear entirely—commonly results in the loss of the first
[r] /r/ (Show IPA)
of
[guhv-er-ner] /ˈgʌv ər nər/
producing the pronunciation
[guhv-uh-ner] /ˈgʌv ə nər/ .
This pronunciation is heard even in regions where postvocalic
[r] /r/
is not usually dropped. A further loss, of the medial unstressed vowel, results in
[guhv-ner] /ˈgʌv nər/ .
All three pronunciations are standard. See colonel, February, library.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for undergovernor

governor

/ˈɡʌvənə/
noun
1.
a person who governs
2.
the ruler or chief magistrate of a colony, province, etc
3.
the representative of the Crown in a British colony
4.
(Brit) the senior administrator or head of a society, prison, etc
5.
the chief executive of any state in the US
6.
a device that controls the speed of an engine, esp by regulating the supply of fuel, etc, either to limit the maximum speed or to maintain a constant speed
7.
(grammar) Also called head
  1. a word in a phrase or clause that is the principal item and gives the function of the whole, as hat in the big red hat
  2. (as modifier): a governor noun
8.
(Brit, informal) a name or title of respect for a father, employer, etc
related
adjective gubernatorial
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for undergovernor

governor

n.

c.1300, gouernour, "personal keeper, protector, guide," from Old French governeor (11c., Modern French gouverneur) and directly from Latin gubernatorem (nominative gubernator) "director, ruler, governor," originally "steersman, pilot" (see govern). Meaning "subordinate ruler; head of a province, etc." is from late 14c. The adjective gubernatorial remembers the Latin form.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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undergovernor in the Bible

(1.) Heb. nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace (2 Chr. 28:7; comp. 1 Kings 4:6), chief of the temple (1 Chr. 9:11; Jer. 20:1), the leader of the Aaronites (1 Chr. 12:27), keeper of the sacred treasury (26:24), captain of the army (13:1), the king (1 Sam. 9:16), the Messiah (Dan. 9:25). (2.) Heb. nasi, raised; exalted. Used to denote the chiefs of families (Num. 3:24, 30, 32, 35); also of tribes (2:3; 7:2; 3:32). These dignities appear to have been elective, not hereditary. (3.) Heb. pakid, an officer or magistrate. It is used of the delegate of the high priest (2 Chr. 24:11), the Levites (Neh. 11:22), a military commander (2 Kings 25:19), Joseph's officers in Egypt (Gen. 41:34). (4.) Heb. shallit, one who has power, who rules (Gen. 42:6; Ezra 4:20; Eccl. 8:8; Dan. 2:15; 5:29). (5.) Heb. aluph, literally one put over a thousand, i.e., a clan or a subdivision of a tribe. Used of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. 36), and of the Jewish chiefs (Zech. 9:7). (6.) Heb. moshel, one who rules, holds dominion. Used of many classes of rulers (Gen. 3:16; 24:2; 45:8; Ps. 105:20); of the Messiah (Micah 5:2); of God (1 Chr. 29:12; Ps. 103:19). (7.) Heb. sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use. It is used of the chief baker of Pharaoh (Gen. 40:16); of the chief butler (40:2, etc. See also Gen. 47:6; Ex. 1:11; Dan. 1:7; Judg. 10:18; 1 Kings 22:26; 20:15; 2 Kings 1:9; 2 Sam. 24:2). It is used also of angels, guardian angels (Dan. 10:13, 20, 21; 12:1; 10:13; 8:25). (8.) Pehah, whence _pasha_, i.e., friend of the king; adjutant; governor of a province (2 Kings 18:24; Isa. 36:9; Jer. 51: 57; Ezek. 23:6, 23; Dan. 3:2; Esther 3: 12), or a perfect (Neh. 3:7; 5:14; Ezra 5:3; Hag. 1:1). This is a foreign word, Assyrian, which was early adopted into the Hebrew idiom (1 Kings 10:15). (9.) The Chaldean word _segan_ is applied to the governors of the Babylonian satrapies (Dan. 3:2, 27; 6:7); the prefects over the Magi (2:48). The corresponding Hebrew word _segan_ is used of provincial rulers (Jer. 51:23, 28, 57); also of chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem (Ezra 9:2; Neh. 2:16; 4:14, 19; 5:7, 17; 7:5; 12:40). In the New Testament there are also different Greek words rendered thus. (1.) Meaning an ethnarch (2 Cor. 11:32), which was an office distinct from military command, with considerable latitude of application. (2.) The procurator of Judea under the Romans (Matt. 27:2). (Comp. Luke 2:2, where the verb from which the Greek word so rendered is derived is used.) (3.) Steward (Gal. 4:2). (4.) Governor of the feast (John 2:9), who appears here to have been merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to have presided at the marriage banquet in his stead. (5.) A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, (James 3:4).

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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