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in Indian philosophy, the concept of adventitious limiting conditions. In logic, upadhi operates as follows: a syllogism requires a ground (hetu) to prove the proposition-e.g., that there is fire on the mountain is proved by the presence of smoke. But this ground needs a qualification: there can be fire without smoke. An upadhi is recognized for the hetu. Since smoke is produced by fire in living wood, the hetu must be refined thus: smoke is present wherever there is fire in living wood