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city, eastern Kazakhstan. It lies in the foothills of the Rudnyy Altai Mountains and at the junction of the Ulba and Irtysh rivers. Founded as a Russian fort in 1720, it later became a centre of trade with Mongolia and China and the gateway to the mineral wealth of the Rudnyy Altai. Ust-Kamenogorsk is now a major centre of nonferrous metallurgy (lead, zinc, titanium, and magnesium) in Kazakhstan, with important associated research institutes and laboratories. Other industries include food processing and machine building. The city is also an important transport junction. There are teacher-training and construction and road-building institutes, as well as various technical colleges. A large hydroelectric station lies upstream on the Irtysh. Pop. (1993 est.) 334,000.