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city, western Ukraine. It is situated along the Uzh River just east of the Slovak border. For centuries Uzhhorod has been an important cultural, educational, religious, and economic centre of the Carpathian Mountains region. It was founded in the 8th or 9th century and has long had commercial and military significance. It was under Hungarian control from the 11th to the late 17th century, when it became a possession of the Austrian Habsburgs. Nevertheless, Hungarian influence remained strong. It passed to Czechoslovakia in 1919, to Hungary in 1938, and to the Soviet Union during World War II. Its population is predominantly Ukrainian, with significant numbers of Russians and Hungarians. The city's industries have included the manufacture of machine tools, furniture, and foodstuffs. It is the seat of a university founded in 1945. Notable sites include a castle and a 17th-century cathedral. Pop. (2005 est.) 117,028.