phosphate mineral, hydrated aluminum phosphate (AlPO42H2O), which is valued as a semiprecious gemstone and an ornamental material. Both variscite and strengite, a similar mineral in which iron replaces aluminum in the crystal structure, occur as glassy nodules, veins, or crusts, in near-surface deposits: variscite is produced by the action of phosphate-rich waters on aluminous rocks, and strengite by alteration of iron-containing phosphates. Variscite is usually green; strengite, red. Variscite occurs in Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Congo (Kinshasa), and Australia and in commercially important quantities near Fairfield, Utah, U.S. It also occurs with apatite on islands where phosphatic solutions from guano (seafowl excrement) have altered aluminous igneous rocks. Strengite deposits are known in Germany, Portugal, Sweden, and the United States. For detailed physical properties, see phosphate mineral (table)
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