grand prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. Succeeding his father, Ivan III (ruled Moscow 1462-1505), Vasily completed his father's policy of consolidating the numerous independent Russian principalities into a united Muscovite state by annexing Pskov (1510), Ryazan (1517), and Starodub and Novgorod-Seversk (now Novgorod-Seversky) by 1523. He also strengthened his growing state by capturing Smolensk from Lithuania in 1514. His forces were defeated by the Lithuanians at Orsha (1514), however, and Muscovy also suffered devastating raids by Tatars of both the Crimea and Kazan. Nevertheless, Vasily was loyally supported by the metropolitan Daniel, who intrigued in his favour and sanctioned his canonically unjustifiable divorce from his barren first wife (1525). Vasily overcame the opposition of those boyars who objected to his autocratic tendencies and transmitted an enlarged, powerful, centralized state to his son Ivan IV the Terrible
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|a printed punctuation mark (‽), available only in some typefaces, designed to combine the question mark (?) and the exclamation point (!), indicating a mixture of query and interjection, as after a rhetorical question.|
|a chattering or flighty, light-headed person.|
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