verb

[vurb]
noun
any member of a class of words that function as the main elements of predicates, that typically express action, state, or a relation between two things, and that may be inflected for tense, aspect, voice, mood, and to show agreement with their subject or object.

Origin:
1350–1400; Middle English verbe < Latin verbum word

verbless, adjective


The key word in most sentences, the word that reveals what is happening, is the verb. It can declare something (You ran), ask a question (Did you run?), convey a command (Run faster!), or express a wish (May this good weather last!) or a possibility (If you had run well, you might have won; if you run better tomorrow, you may win). You cannot have a complete English sentence without at least one verb.
Understandably, this multitalented part of speech can be analyzed and categorized in any of several ways. For example, this dictionary distinguishes between a transitive verb, labeled “(used with object),” as in The country fought two wars at the same time, and an intransitive verb, labeled “(used without object),” as in He fought in both of them. As we can see with fight, some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive.
Another analysis is offered by the grammarians Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik in their renowned A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. They divide verbs into three categories: (1) modal auxiliary verbs, a short list comprising can, may, will, shall, could, might, would, should, and must, all of which are “helping” verbs, as in Congress will vote tomorrow, and (2) primary verbs, the smallest group—be, do, and have—all three of which can be either auxiliaries (I am leaving for school now; I did finish my homework; I have studied enough) or main verbs (I am happy; I did my best; I have a good teacher), and (3) full verbs, the largest group by far, containing all the rest.
A third approach differentiates an action verb from one that is stative. An action verb expresses something you can do (run, study, sit, want) or something that can happen (leak, end, appear, collapse). In contrast, a stative verb expresses an ongoing state or condition (I know all the answers; we own our house; they fear failure). Some verbs, like be, are in both camps: In she is careless, the verb is is stative, describing a permanent trait. In she was being careless in losing those documents, the verb was is an action verb, describing a specific act of carelessness. The same mutability is seen in verbs of the senses (smell, taste, feel): Mmm, smell that coffee [action]; the coffee smells wonderful [stative].
We can also distinguish the linking verb (more formally known as a copula) from verbs that can take an object or be modified by an adverb. Linking verbs identify or describe a subject by connecting it with a noun, an adjective, or a prepositional phrase in a following complement (she is a doctor; they were delighted; we will be at the party). Other linking verbs, like feel, appear, smell, taste, look, become, and stay perform the same concatenating function. A number of them happen to be stative, but not all; get and act, for example, are both linking and action verbs (the weather got warmer yesterday; she acted surprised). As we can see, a single verb can be categorized in more than one way, depending on which type of analysis we subject it to.
And finally, we can look at English verbs in terms of a number of grammatical features that are expressed by changes in their form or changes in the way sentences are constructed. These features are tense2 (such as present and past), voice (active or passive), person (first, second, or third), number (singular or plural), and mood2 (such as indicative and subjunctive)—each defined at its own dictionary.com entry.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
verb (vɜːb)
 
n
1.  (in traditional grammar) any of a large class of words in a language that serve to indicate the occurrence or performance of an action, the existence of a state or condition, etc. In English, such words as run, make, do, and the like are verbs
2.  in modern descriptive linguistic analysis
 a.  a word or group of words that functions as the predicate of a sentence or introduces the predicate
 b.  (as modifier): a verb phrase
 
[C14: from Latin verbum a word]
 
'verbless
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

verb
1388, from O.Fr. verbe "part of speech that expresses action or being," from L. verbum "verb," originally "a word," from PIE base *were- (cf. Avestan urvata- "command;" Skt. vrata- "command, vow;" Gk. rhetor "public speaker," rhetra "agreement, covenant," eirein "to speak, say;" Hittite weriga- "call,
summon;" Lith. vardas "name;" Goth. waurd, O.E. word "word").
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

verb definition


A word that represents an action or a state of being. Go, strike, travel, and exist are examples of verbs. A verb is the essential part of the predicate of a sentence. The grammatical forms of verbs include number, person, and tense. (See auxiliary verb, infinitive, intransitive verb, irregular verb, participle, regular verb, and transitive verb.)

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
They predict the next verb to fall into line will be wed, the past tense of which will regularize from wed to wedded.
Originally, the noun ache differed in spelling and in pronunciation from the verb ake, as speech from speak.
The world being thus put under the mind for verb and noun, the poet is he who can articulate it.
Bear in mind that cats can't spell all that well and that they're not so hot on
  subject-verb agreement either.
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