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any member of a genus in the small fruit fly family, Drosophilidae (order Diptera). Drosophila species number about 1,500. Some species, particularly D. melanogaster, are used extensively in laboratory and field experiments on genetics and evolution because they are easy to raise and have a short life cycle (less than two weeks at room temperature). More studies have been conducted concerning the genetics of the vinegar fly than have been obtained for any other animal. Drosophila chromosomes, especially the giant chromosomes found in the salivary glands of mature larvae, are used in studies involving heritable characteristics and the basis for gene action