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provincia (province) in the comunidad autonoma (autonomous community) of Basque Country, northern Spain. Originally a tribal territory of the Vascones (4th century), Vizcaya was vested in the crown of Castile and Leon in 1379, but the central government has always had difficulties ruling the fiercely independent Basques. Charters of rights and privileges (fueros) toward some form of regional autonomy were granted to the Basque provinces, notably in the Economic Accord of 1925, signed with the national exchequer. This agreement was canceled, however, after the Nationalist victory of 1937. In 1980, with Alava and Guipuzcoa, Vizcaya became one of the three component provinces of the autonomous region of the Basque Country