|Volgograd (Russian vəlɡaˈɡrat, English ˈvɒlɡəˌɡræd)|
|Tsaritsyn, Former names: Stalingrad a port in SW Russia, on the River Volga: scene of a major engagement (1918) during the civil war and again in World War II (1942--43), in which the German forces were defeated; major industrial centre. Pop: 1 016 000 (2005 est)|
Note: The city is a major commercial and industrial center.
Note: From 1925 to 1961, it was named Stalingrad. During the brutal winter of 1942–1943, a huge German invasion force besieged the city but ultimately failed to take it. The German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II, marking the beginning of the end for the Nazis.