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religious social-welfare organization in the United States that offers spiritual and material aid to those in need. It was founded in New York City in 1896 by Ballington and Maud Booth as a result of a schism in the Salvation Army and is organized along quasi-military lines. The Grand Field Council, made up of all officers of the rank of lieutenant major or higher, is the chief governing body. It elects the commander in chief and other administrative officers.