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city, east-central Sudan. Wad Madani lies on the west bank of the Blue Nile, 85 miles (136 km) southeast of Khartoum, at an elevation of 1,348 feet (411 metres). It owes its recent growth to the irrigated lands of the Jazirah (Gezira) irrigation scheme and is the commercial centre of the al-Jazirah cotton-growing area. Peanuts (groundnuts) and wheat are also grown in the area. The University of al-Jazirah (founded 1975), the Agricultural Research Corporation, and al-Jazirah Research Corporation Library are located at Wad Madani. It has good railway and road connections with Khartoum, Kusti, and al-Qadarif and a ferry service on the Blue Nile. A domestic airport is also there. It was a small Egyptian administrative post in the 19th century, and most of its inhabitants (mainly Arabic-speaking) are affiliated to northern Sudanese peoples. Pop. (2000 est.) urban agglom., 276,000.