|Polish name: Polska a republic in central Europe, on the Baltic: first united in the 10th century; dissolved after the third partition effected by Austria, Russia, and Prussia in 1795; re-established independence in 1918; invaded by Germany in 1939; ruled by a Communist government from 1947 to 1989, when a multiparty system was introduced; joined the EU in 2004. It consists chiefly of a low undulating plain in the north, rising to a low plateau in the south, with the Sudeten and Carpathian Mountains along the S border. Official language: Polish. Religion: Roman Catholic majority. Currency: złoty. Capital: Warsaw. Pop: 38 551 000 (2004 est). Area: 311 730 sq km (120 359 sq miles)|
|Polish name: Warszawa the capital of Poland, in the E central part on the River Vistula: became capital at the end of the 16th century; almost completely destroyed in World War II as the main centre of the Polish resistance movement; rebuilt within about six years; university (1818); situated at the junction of important trans-European routes. Pop: 2 204 000 (2005 est)|
Republic in central Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea and Russia to the north, Lithuania to the northeast, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, The Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, and Germany to the west. Its capital and largest city is Warsaw.
Note: Poland was a great power from the fourteenth through the seventeenth centuries, but in the eighteenth century it was partitioned three times among Austria, Prussia, and Russia. It was again recognized as an independent state in 1919.
Note: The invasion of Poland by Germany in 1939 precipitated World War II.
Note: During World War II, about six million Poles, including three million Jews, died from German massacres, starvation, and execution in concentration camps such as Auschwitz.
Note: In 1952, Poland became a people's republic on the Soviet model.
Note: The Solidarity movement, which demanded greater worker control in Poland, emerged in the early 1980s as one of the first signs of popular discontent with single-party rule and the communist economic system.
Note: In 1989, Solidarity-backed candidates swept to victory in free elections, but Solidarity subsequently declined sharply as a political force.
Note: Poland joined NATO in 1999.
Capital of Poland and largest city in the country, located in central Poland; the political, cultural, industrial, and transportation center of Poland.
Note: Warsaw has been the capital of Poland since 1596, though it was occupied by the Russians (1813–1815) and the Germans (1915–1918 and 1939–1945).
Note: During World War II, half a million Jews living in the Warsaw Jewish ghetto were exterminated by the Germans.