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the state of the atmosphere with respect to wind, temperature, cloudiness, moisture, pressure, etc.
a strong wind or storm or strong winds and storms collectively: We've had some real weather this spring.
a weathercast: The radio announcer will read the weather right after the commercial.
Usually, weathers. changes or vicissitudes in one's lot or fortunes: She remained a good friend in all weathers.
verb (used with object)
to expose to the weather; dry, season, or otherwise affect by exposure to the air or atmosphere: to weather lumber before marketing it.
to discolor, disintegrate, or affect injuriously, as by the effects of weather: These crumbling stones have been weathered by the centuries.
to bear up against and come safely through (a storm, danger, trouble, etc.): to weather a severe illness.
Nautical. (of a ship, mariner, etc.) to pass or sail to the windward of: to weather a cape.
Architecture. to cause to slope, so as to shed water.
verb (used without object)
to undergo change, especially discoloration or disintegration, as the result of exposure to atmospheric conditions.
to endure or resist exposure to the weather: a coat that weathers well.
to go or come safely through a storm, danger, trouble, etc. (usually followed by through ): It was a difficult time for her, but she weathered through beautifully.
under the weather, Informal.
somewhat indisposed; ailing; ill.
suffering from a hangover.
more or less drunk: Many fatal accidents are caused by drivers who are under the weather.

before 900; Middle English (noun), Old English weder; cognate with Dutch weder, German Wetter, Old Norse vethr

weatherer, noun

weather, whether, whither, wither (see synonym study at wither).
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
weather (ˈwɛðə)
1.  a.  Compare climate the day-to-day meteorological conditions, esp temperature, cloudiness, and rainfall, affecting a specific place
 b.  (modifier) relating to the forecasting of weather: a weather ship
2.  a prevailing state or condition
3.  make heavy weather
 a.  (of a vessel) to roll and pitch in heavy seas
 b.  (foll by of) to carry out with great difficulty or unnecessarily great effort
4.  informal under the weather
 a.  not in good health
 b.  intoxicated
5.  (prenominal) Compare lee on or at the side or part towards the wind; windward: the weather anchor
vb (when intr, foll by through)
6.  to expose or be exposed to the action of the weather
7.  to undergo or cause to undergo changes, such as discoloration, due to the action of the weather
8.  (intr) to withstand the action of the weather
9.  to endure (a crisis, danger, etc)
10.  (tr) to slope (a surface, such as a roof, sill, etc) so as to throw rainwater clear
11.  (tr) to sail to the windward of: to weather a point
[Old English weder; related to Old Saxon wedar, Old High German wetar, Old Norse vethr]

weathering (ˈwɛðərɪŋ)
the mechanical and chemical breakdown of rocks by the action of rain, snow, cold, etc

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

O.E. weder, from P.Gmc. *wedran (cf. O.S. wedar, O.N. veðr, O.Fris., M.Du., Du. weder, O.H.G. wetar, Ger. Wetter "storm, wind, weather"), from PIE *we-dhro-, "weather," from base *we- "to blow" (see wind (n.)). Spelling with -th- first appeared 15c., though pronunciation
may be much older. Verb sense of "come through safely" is from 1655; that of "wear away by exposure" is from 1757. Weather-beaten is from 1530. Under the weather "indisposed" is from 1827. Weatherman "one who observes the weather" is attested from 1901. Gk. had words for "good weather" (aithria, eudia) and words for "storm" and "winter," but no generic word for "weather" until kairos (lit. "time") began to be used as such in Byzantine times. L. tempestas "weather" (see tempest) also originally meant "time;" and words for "time" also came to mean weather in Ir. (aimsir), Serbo-Cr. (vrijeme), Pol. (czas), etc.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
weather   (wě'ər)  Pronunciation Key 
The state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place. Weather is described in terms of variable conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind velocity, precipitation, and barometric pressure. Weather on Earth occurs primarily in the troposphere, or lower atmosphere, and is driven by energy from the Sun and the rotation of the Earth. The average weather conditions of a region over time are used to define a region's climate.
weathering   (wě'ər-ĭng)  Pronunciation Key 
Any of the chemical or mechanical processes by which rocks exposed to the weather undergo chemical decomposition and physical disintegration. Although weathering usually occurs at the Earth's surface, it can also occur at significant depths, for example through the percolation of groundwater through fractures in bedrock. It usually results in changes in the color, texture, composition, or hardness of the affected rocks.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

weather definition

The daily conditions of the atmosphere in terms of temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, and moisture.

weathering definition

The process by which rocks are broken down into small grains and soil. Weathering can happen through rainfall, ice formation, or the action of living things, such as algae and plant roots. It is part of the geological cycle.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Along the river, barge operators are weathering the economic turbulence.
While he was consoling me on my disappointing market debut, he was weathering
  his own stormy job-search seas.
The corrosive chemistry and dense, moving atmosphere cause significant surface
  weathering and erosion.
The second is the measurement of the weathering of marble and other
  gravestones, which requires a micrometer.
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