what's

[hwuhts, hwots, wuhts, wots; unstressed hwuhts, wuhts]
1.
contraction of what is or what has: What's the matter? What's been done?
2.
contraction of what does: What's she do for a living?

See contraction.
Dictionary.com Unabridged

what

[hwuht, hwot, wuht, wot; unstressed hwuht, wuht]
pronoun
1.
(used interrogatively as a request for specific information): What is the matter?
2.
(used interrogatively to inquire about the character, occupation, etc., of a person): What does he do?
3.
(used interrogatively to inquire as to the origin, identity, etc., of something): What are those birds?
4.
(used interrogatively to inquire as to the worth, usefulness, force, or importance of something): What is wealth without friends?
5.
(used interrogatively to request a repetition of words or information not fully understood, usually used in elliptical constructions): You need what?
6.
(used interrogatively to inquire the reason or purpose of something, usually used in elliptical constructions): What of it?
7.
how much?: What does it cost?
8.
(used relatively to indicate that which): I will send what was promised.
9.
whatever; anything that: Say what you please. Come what may.
10.
the kind of thing or person that: He said what everyone expected he would. They are just what I was expecting.
11.
as much as; as many as: We should each give what we can.
12.
the thing or fact that (used in parenthetic clauses): He went to the meeting and, what was worse, insisted on speaking.
13.
(used to indicate more to follow, additional possibilities, alternatives, etc.): You know what? Shall we go or what?
14.
(used as an intensifier in exclamatory phrases, often followed by an indefinite article): What luck! What an idea!
15.
British. don't you agree?: An unusual chap, what?
16.
Nonstandard. that; which; who: She's the one what told me.
noun
17.
the true nature or identity of something, or the sum of its characteristics: a lecture on the whats and hows of crop rotation.
adjective
18.
(used interrogatively before nouns): What news? What clothes shall I pack?
19.
whatever: Take what supplies you need.
adverb
20.
to what extent or degree? how much?: What does it matter?
21.
(used to introduce a prepositional phrase beginning with with ): What with storms and all, their return was delayed.
22.
Obsolete. for what reason or purpose? why?
interjection
23.
(used in exclamatory expressions, often followed by a question): What, no salt?
conjunction
24.
Older Use. as much as; as far as: He helps me what he can.
Idioms
25.
but what, Informal. but that; but who; who or that … not: Who knows but what the sun may still shine.
26.
Say what?, Slang. (used especially among teenagers) What's that you say? Would you repeat that?
27.
So what?, Informal. (an expression of disinterest, disinclination, or contempt.)
28.
what for,
a.
why: What are you doing that for?
b.
a punishment or scolding.
29.
what have you, other things of the same kind; so forth: money, jewels, stocks, and what have you.
30.
what if, what would be the outcome if; suppose that: What if everyone who was invited comes?
31.
what it takes, something that enables one to achieve success or attain a desired end, as good looks, ability, or money: There's a young woman who has what it takes to get along in the world.
32.
what's what, Informal. the true situation; all the facts: It's high time you told him what's what.

Origin:
before 900; Middle English; Old English hwæt; cognate with German was, Dutch wat, Old Norse hvat; akin to Gothic hwa, Latin quod, Greek


24. See doubt.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
what (wɒt, (unstressed) wət)
 
determiner
1.  a.  used with a noun in requesting further information about the identity or categorization of something: what job does he do?
 b.  (as pronoun): what is her address?
 c.  (used in indirect questions): does he know what man did this?; tell me what he said
2.  a.  the (person, thing, persons, or things) that: we photographed what animals we could see
 b.  (as pronoun): bring me what you've written; come what may
3.  (intensifier; used in exclamations): what a good book!
 
adv
4.  in what respect? to what degree?: what do you care?
 
pron
5.  not standard which, who, or that, when used as relative pronouns: this is the man what I saw in the park yesterday
6.  what about what do you think, know, feel, etc, concerning?
7.  what for
 a.  for what purpose? why?
 b.  informal a punishment or reprimand (esp in the phrase give (a person) what for)
8.  what have you someone, something, or somewhere unknown or unspecified: cars, motorcycles, or what have you
9.  what if
 a.  what would happen if?
 b.  what difference would it make if?
10.  what matter what does it matter?
11.  informal what's what the true or real state of affairs
 
interj
12.  informal don't you think? don't you agree?: splendid party, what?
 
usage  The use of are in sentences such as what we need are more doctors is common, although many people think is should be used: what we need is more doctors

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

what
O.E. hwæt, from P.Gmc. *khwat (cf. O.S. hwat, O.N. hvat, Dan. hvad, O.Fris. hwet, Du. wat, O.H.G. hwaz, Ger. was, Goth. hva "what"), from PIE *qwod, neut. sing. of *qwos "who" (see who). Meaning "what did you say?" is recorded from c.1300; as an interrogative expletive
at the end of sentences it is first recorded 1785, common early 20c. in affected British speech. Or what as an alternative end to a question is first attested 1766. "To give one what for is to respond to his remonstrant what for? by further assault" [Weekley]. The phrase is attested from 1873. What's-his-name for "unspecified person" is attested from 1697; variant whatsisface is first recorded 1967. What's up? "what is happening?" first recorded 1881.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
What's true of the eight-hundred-pound gorilla is true of the colossus that is
  the pharmaceutical industry.
What's more, the materials are cheap, and the design allows for simple
  manufacturing.
In contrast, the researchers use what's known as nonradiative energy that is
  bound up near the coils.
What's more, you might not even have a place in the new way.
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