William Bradfield. 1910–89, US physicist, born in Britain, who shared the Nobel prize for physics (1956) with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain for developing the transistor. He also held controversial views on the connection between race and intelligence
(shŏk'lē) American physicist who, with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, invented the transistor in 1947. For this work, all three shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1956. Shockley went on to make improvements to the transistor that made it easier to manufacture.