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city, eastern Ukraine. It lies along the Krynka River. A pig-iron concern began there in 1858 but lasted only eight years; not until the first coal mines opened in the locality in 1883 did industrialization begin. A metallurgical factory established in 1895-97 was later reconstructed. The city, incorporated in 1925, ultimately developed a wide industrial base, with numerous metallurgical (notably iron and steel) concerns and coke-based chemical, cement, and construction industries. Pop. (2001) 103,997; (2005 est.) 96,616.