yours

[yoorz, yawrz, yohrz]
pronoun
1.
(a form of the possessive case of you used as a predicate adjective): Which cup is yours? Is she a friend of yours?
2.
that which belongs to you: Yours was the first face I recognized.

Origin:
1250–1300; Middle English, equivalent to your + -s, as in his

Dictionary.com Unabridged

thou

1 [thou]
pronoun, sing., nom. thou; possessive thy or thine; objective thee; pl., nom. you or ye; possessive your or yours; objective you or ye.
1.
(Archaic except in some elevated or ecclesiastical prose) the personal pronoun of the second person singular in the nominative case (used to denote the person or thing addressed): Thou shalt not kill.
2.
(used by the Friends) a familiar form of address of the second person singular.
verb (used with object)
3.
to address as “thou.”
verb (used without object)
4.
to use “thou” in discourse.

Origin:
before 900; Middle English; Old English thū; cognate with German, Middle Dutch du, Old Norse thū, Gothic thu, Old Irish tú, Welsh, Cornish ti, Latin tū, Doric Greek tý, Lithuanian tù, OCS ty; akin to Sanskrit tvam; (v.) late Middle English thowen, derivative of the pronoun

you

[yoo; unstressed yoo, yuh]
pronoun, possessive your or yours, objective you, plural you.
1.
the pronoun of the second person singular or plural, used of the person or persons being addressed, in the nominative or objective case: You are the highest bidder. It is you who are to blame. We can't help you. This package came for you. Did she give you the book?
2.
one; anyone; people in general: a tiny animal you can't even see.
3.
(used in apposition with the subject of a sentence, sometimes repeated for emphasis following the subject): You children pay attention. You rascal, you!
4.
Informal. (used in place of the pronoun your before a gerund): There's no sense in you getting upset.
5.
Archaic.
a.
yourself; yourselves: Get you home. Make you ready.
b.
a plural form of the pronoun ye.
noun, plural yous.
6.
something or someone closely identified with or resembling the person addressed: Don't buy the bright red shirt—it just isn't you. It was like seeing another you.
7.
the nature or character of the person addressed: Try to discover the hidden you.

Origin:
before 900; Middle English; Old English ēow (dative, accusative of ye1); cognate with Old Frisian ju, Old Saxon iu, Dutch u, Old High German iu, eu

ewe, yew, you (see usage note at the current entry).


In American English the pronoun you has been supplemented by additional forms to make clear the distinction between singular and plural. You-all, often pronounced as one syllable, is a widespread spoken form in the South Midland and Southern United States. Its possessive is often you-all's rather than your. You-uns (from you + ones) is a South Midland form most often found in uneducated speech; it is being replaced by you-all. Youse (you + the plural -s ending of nouns), probably of Irish-American origin, is most common in the North, especially in urban centers like Boston, New York, and Chicago. It is rare in educated speech. You guys is a common informal expression among younger speakers; it can include persons of both sexes or even a group of women only. See also me.
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World English Dictionary
thou1 (ðaʊ)
 
pron
1.  archaic, dialect refers to the person addressed: used mainly in familiar address or to a younger person or inferior
2.  (usually capital) refers to God when addressed in prayer, etc
 
[Old English thū; related to Old Saxon thū, Old High German du, Old Norse thū, Latin tū, Doric Greek tu]

thou2 (θaʊ)
 
n , pl thous, thou
1.  one thousandth of an inch. 1 thou is equal to 0.0254 millimetre
2.  informal short for thousand

you (juː, (unstressed) jʊ)
 
pron
1.  refers to the person addressed or to more than one person including the person or persons addressed but not including the speaker: you know better; the culprit is among you
2.  Also: one refers to an unspecified person or people in general: you can't tell the boys from the girls
3.  chiefly (US) See yourself a dialect word for yourself or yourselves: you should get you a wife now
 
n
4.  informal the personality of the person being addressed or something that expresses it: that hat isn't really you
5.  you know what, you know who a thing or person that the speaker cannot or does not want to specify
 

yours (jɔːz, jʊəz)
 
pron
1.  something or someone belonging to or associated in some way with you: I've eaten yours
2.  your family: greetings to you and yours
3.  used in conventional closing phrases at the end of a letter: yours sincerely; yours faithfully
4.  of yours belonging to or associated with you
5.  jocular what's yours? what would you like to drink?

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

you
O.E. eow, dat. and acc. pl. of þu (see thou), objective case of ge, "ye" (see ye), from W.Gmc. *iuwiz (cf. O.N. yor, O.S. iu, O.Fris. iuwe, M.Du., Du. u, O.H.G. iu, iuwih, Ger. euch), from PIE *ju. Pronunciation of you and the nom. form ye gradually
merged from 14c.; the distinction between them passed out of general usage by 1600. Widespread use of Fr. in England after 12c. gave Eng. you the same association as Fr. vous, and it began to drive out sing. nom. thou, originally as a sign of respect (similar to the "royal we") when addressing superiors, then equals and strangers, and ultimately (by c.1575) becoming the general form of address. For a more thorough discussion of this, go here. Words for "you" in Japanese include anata (formal, used by a wife when addressing her husband), kimi (intimate, used among friends) or the rougher omae (oh-MAI-aye), used when talking down to someone or among male friend showing their manliness. Dial. you-uns, for you-ones, first noted 1810 in Ohio.
"Children learn from the slaves some odd phrases ... as ... will you all do this? for, will one of you do this?" ["Arthur Singleton" (Henry C. Knight), "Letters from the South and West," 1824]

thou
2nd nominative singular personal pronoun, O.E. þu, from P.Gmc. *thu (cf. O.Fris. thu, M.Du., M.L.G. du, O.H.G., Ger. du, O.N. þu, Goth. þu), from PIE *tu-, second person singular pronoun (cf. L. tu, Ir. tu, Welsh ti, Gk. su, Lith. tu, O.C.S. ty, Skt. twa-m). Superseded in M.E. by plural
form you (from a different root), but retained in certain dialects (e.g. Philadelphia Quakers). The plural at first was used in addressing superior individuals, later also (to err on the side of propriety) strangers, and ultimately all equals. By c.1450 the use of thou to address inferiors gave it a tinge of insult unless addressed by parents to children, or intimates to one another. Hence the verb meaning "to use 'thou' to a person" (c.1440).
"Avaunt, caitiff, dost thou thou me! I am come of good kin, I tell thee!" ["Hickscorner," c.1530]
A brief history of the second person pronoun in Eng. can be found here.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Abbreviations & Acronyms
thou
thousand
The American Heritage® Abbreviations Dictionary, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Resplendent with glimmering pools, they're yours for the entire day for the
  price of a single treatment.
The takeaway here is that the closer the seed company's climate is to yours,
  the more accurate the days-to-harvest will be.
Pick out a peach tree to lease for the year, and the fruit is yours.
If yours looks healthy, your only chore right now is fertilizing it to keep it
  strong.
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