8 Wintry Words to Defrost Your Vocabulary
in Japanese floral art, modern style in which freedom of expression takes precedence over classic rules. Zen'ei ikebana was established in 1930 by a group of art critics and floral masters led by Teshigahara Sofu, founder of the Sogetsu school (1927). In the spirit of the less-formal nageire and moribana styles, it broke established rules governing the natural placement of materials and the choice of vases harmonious with the arrangement. Zen'ei ikebana masters crossed stems, used even numbers of branches rather than the odd numbers prescribed by tradition, cut leaves into artificial shapes, applied paint to the arrangement, visibly wired the arrangement together, and often included such materials as plastic, glass, and feathers.