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gemeente (municipality), east-central Netherlands, at the confluence of the IJssel and Berkel rivers. Founded in the 11th century as Zuidveen (meaning "southern peat bog"), it became the seat of a line of independent counts until it passed to the counts of Gelderland in 1190. It was fortified in 1312 and became a member of the Hanseatic League. The town was sacked in 1572 by the Spanish, who occupied it until 1591. Zutphen was held by the French from 1672 to 1673 and again in 1795, after which it remained under French control until 1813. Occupied by the Germans during World War II, it suffered damage. Of the medieval fortifications, the ruined Berkel Gate (1312), the Nieuwestadpoort (gate), and the Drogenapstoren (Rampart Tower; 1444-46) remain. Other landmarks include the Grote Kerk (St. Walburgis; 13th-15th century), with its library folios chained to desks; the Wijnhuistoren (Winehouse Tower; 1627); the town hall (1729); and the 15th-century butter and meat halls (markets)