Constitutional monarchy in northwestern Europe, bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Luxembourg City is its capital and largest city.
Note: Luxembourg has been a member of NATO since 1949.
Note: It was occupied by Germany during parts of World War I and World War II.
Note: Part of the Battle of the Bulge was fought in northern Luxembourg in the winter of 1944–1945.
Note: It is an international financial center and one of Europe's oldest and smallest independent countries.