Republic in western South America, bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, Ecuador to the northwest, Colombia to the northeast, Brazil and Bolivia to the east, and Chile to the south. Its capital and largest city is Lima.
Note: Achieved independence from Spain in 1821.
Note: Peru was the heart of the Inca Empire, which flourished from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries. The remains of the empire include the fabled stone fortress of Machu Picchu.