a person who is not on active duty with a military, naval, police, or fire fighting organization.
Informal. anyone regarded by members of a profession, interest group, society, etc., as not belonging; nonprofessional; outsider: We need a producer to run the movie studio, not some civilian from the business world.
a person versed in or studying Roman or civil law.
of, pertaining to, formed by, or administered by civilians.

1350–1400; Middle English: student of civil law < Old French civilien (adj.); see civil, -ian

anticivilian, adjective
noncivilian, noun
procivilian, adjective Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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World English Dictionary
civilian (sɪˈvɪljən)
a.  a person whose primary occupation is civil or nonmilitary
 b.  (as modifier): civilian life
[C14 (originally: a practitioner of civil law): from civile (from the Latin phrase jūs cīvīle civil law) + -ian]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1388, from O.Fr. civilien "of the civil law," created from L. civilis (see civil). Original meaning in Eng. was "judge or authority on civil law," sense of "non-military person" is first attested 1829.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Basic pay is required by law to grow in line with civilian pay.
File a complaint with the civilian complaint review board.
The immediate big future for this development is in the civilian market.
Officers sign up civilian volunteers to join the fight next to the
  anti-aircraft station on the basketball court of a high school.
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