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Roget's New Millennium™ Thesaurus, First Edition (v 1.3.1) Copyright © 2012 by Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this database may be reproduced or otherwise used without prior written permission from the publisher unless such use is expressly permitted by applicable law.

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The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition Copyright © 1996, 1992 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. No part of this database may be reproduced or otherwise used without prior written permission from the publisher unless such use is expressly permitted by applicable law.


No investigation has been made of common-law trademark rights in any word. Words that are known to have current trademark registrations are show with an initial capital and are also identified as trademarks. The inclusion or exclusion of any word, or its capitalization, in this dictionary is not, however, an expression of the publisher's opinion as to whether or not it is subject to proprietary rights, nor is it to be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark.

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American Heritage is a registered trademark of Forbes Inc. Its use is pursuant to a license agreement with Forbes Inc.

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For more information on Houghton Mifflin Electronic Reference products, visit the Houghton Mifflin Trade Electronic Reference Web site at:
http://www.eref-trade.hmco.com/

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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) [web1913]


      This file was converted from the original database on: Sun Feb 22 14:18:06 1998


      The original data is available from: ftp://ftp.uga.edu/pub/misc/webster/


      The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed.


Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


       ============================================

Begin file 1 of 24: A. (Version 0.46) of an electronic field-marked version of:


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary - version published 1913 by the C. & G. Merriam Co. Springfield, Mass. Under the direction of Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D.


This version is copyrighted (C) 1996, 1998 by MICRA, Inc. of Plainfield, NJ. Last edit February 3, 1998.


This electronic version may be used freely for personal use or for research, and may be freely distributed provided that the entire set of files are copied, and the headers and copyright notices are not modified or deleted. The inclusion of more than one per cent of the text of this dictionary in a product for sale requires the express written permission of MICRA Inc. Sale of entire copies, including all headers and copyright notices, will not be considered a violation of this provision. This version is only a first typing, and has numerous typographic errors, including errors in the field-marks. Assistance in bringing this dictionary to a more accurate and useful state will greatly appreciated. This electronic dictionary is made available as a potential starting point for development of a modern on-line comprehensive encyclopedic dictionary, by the efforts of all individuals willing to help build a large and freely available knowledge base. Anyone willing to assist in any way in constructing such a knowledge base should contact:


          Patrick Cassidy          cassidy@micra.com
          735 Belvidere Ave.       Office: (908)668-5252
          Plainfield, NJ 07062
          (908) 561-3416

WordNet (r) 1.6 [wn]


This file was converted from the original database on: Sun Feb 15 21:09:53 1998


The original data is available from: ftp://clarity.princeton.edu/pub/wordnet/wn1.6unix.tar.gz


The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed. Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


      This software and database is being provided to you, the LICENSEE, by Princeton University under the following license. By obtaining, using and/or copying this software and database, you agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with these terms and conditions.


      Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and database and its documentation for any purpose and without fee or royalty is hereby granted, provided that you agree to comply with the following copyright notice and statements, including the disclaimer, and that the same appear on ALL copies of the software, database and documentation, including modifications that you make for internal use or for distribution.


      WordNet 1.6 Copyright 1997 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.


      THIS SOFTWARE AND DATABASE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND PRINCETON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF MERCHANT- ABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF THE LICENSED SOFTWARE, DATABASE OR DOCUMENTATION WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY PATENTS, COPYRIGHTS, TRADEMARKS OR OTHER RIGHTS.


      The name of Princeton University or Princeton may not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software and/or database. Title to copyright in this software, database and any associated documentation shall at all times remain with Princeton University and LICENSEE agrees to preserve same.


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The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing [foldoc]


The original data is available from: ftp://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/Dictionary.gz


The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed. Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


Free On-line Dictionary of Computing


FOLDOC is a searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecoms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing.


      This dictionary is Copyright Denis Howe 1993, 1998.


Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this dictionary or modified versions or translations into another language, provided that every such copy or derived work carries the above copyright notice and is distributed under terms identical to these. Individual definitions from this dictionary may be used without restriction provided no more than twenty are used in any one work.


Please refer to the dictionary as "The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/, Editor Denis Howe" or similar.


      The dictionary has been growing since 1985 and now contains over 11000 definitions totalling more than four megabytes. Entries are cross-referenced to each other and to related resources elsewhere on the net.


Where LaTeX commands for certain non-ASCII symbols are mentioned, they are described in their own entries. "\" is also used to represent the Greek lower-case lambda used in lambda-calculus. Cross-references to other entries look like this. Note that not all cross-references actually lead anywhere yet, but if you find one that leads to something inappropriate, please let me know. Dates after entries indicate when that entry was last updated. They do not imply that it was up-to-date at that time.


You can search the latest version of the dictionary by WWW (URL http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/). If you find an entry that is wrong or inadequate please let me know.


    See Pronunciation for how to interpret the pronunciation given for some entries.

    Denis Howe dbh@doc.ic.ac.uk> +44 (171) 456 5772.

    (09 Dec 1996)

  Acknowledgements

Many thanks to the hundreds of contributors, and especially to the Guest Editors (editors.html), mirror site maintainers and the maintainers of the following resources from which some entries originate:


    Mike Sendall's STING Software engineering glossary
    sendall@dxpt01.cern.ch>, 13 Oct 1993,

    Bill Kinnersley's {Language List
    (http://cuiwww.unige.ch/langlist)} v2.2, 15 Jan 1994,

    Mark Hopkins' catalogue of Free Compilers and Interpreters
    v6.4, 28 Feb 1994,

    The on-line hacker Jargon File v3.0.0, 27 Jul 1993,

    Internet Users' Glossary (RFC 1392, FYI 18), Jan 1993.

    John Cross's computer glossary, 01 Nov 1994.

    John Bayko's Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present,
    v4.0.0, 18 Aug 1994.

    Electronic Commerce Dictionary.

    (01 Aug 1997)
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Jargon File (4.0.0/24 July 1996) [jargon]

This file was converted from the original database on: Sun Jan 4 11:33:30 1998


The original data is available from: http://www.ccil.org/jargon


The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed. Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


   #======= THIS IS THE JARGON FILE, VERSION  4.0.0,  24 JUL 1996 =======#

This is the Jargon File, a comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor.


This document (the Jargon File) is in the public domain, to be freely used, shared, and modified. There are (by intention) no legal restraints on what you can do with it, but there are traditions about its proper use to which many hackers are quite strongly attached. Please extend the courtesy of proper citation when you quote the File, ideally with a version number, as it will change and grow over time. (Examples of appropriate citation form: "Jargon File 4.0.0" or "The on-line hacker Jargon File, version 4.0.0, 24 JUL 1996".)


The Jargon File is a common heritage of the hacker culture. Over the years a number of individuals have volunteered considerable time to maintaining the File and been recognized by the net at large as editors of it. Editorial responsibilities include: to collate contributions and suggestions from others; to seek out corroborating information; to cross-reference related entries; to keep the file in a consistent format; and to announce and distribute updated versions periodically. Current volunteer editors include:


      Eric Raymond esr@snark.thyrsus.com


Although there is no requirement that you do so, it is considered good form to check with an editor before quoting the File in a published work or commercial product. We may have additional information that would be helpful to you and can assist you in framing your quote to reflect not only the letter of the File but its spirit as well.


All contributions and suggestions about this file sent to a volunteer editor are gratefully received and will be regarded, unless otherwise labelled, as freely given donations for possible use as part of this public-domain file.


From time to time a snapshot of this file has been polished, edited, and formatted for commercial publication with the cooperation of the volunteer editors and the hacker community at large. If you wish to have a bound paper copy of this file, you may find it convenient to purchase one of these. They often contain additional material not found in on-line versions. The two `authorized' editions so far are described in the Revision History section; there may be more in the future.


The Elements (22Oct97) [elements]


This file was converted from the original database on: Sun Jan 4 11:34:17 1998


The original data is available from:mailto:jkominek@xtn.net


The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed. Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


This dictionary database was created by Jay Kominek jkominek@xtn.net


(Feel free to send any comments, additions, corrections, money to that address) It was compiled from a variety of sources, and is in my opinion, a work of my own. (The only stuff that was really copied verbatim was the atomic numbers and weights, please, I'd like to see someone try and exert a copyright on the values of atoms.) So, I place this in the public domain, if it somehow breaks, you get to keep both pieces. It'd be nice if you kept the fact that I compiled the information in here, but is not needed.

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Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary [easton]

This file was converted from the original database on: Sun Jan 4 11:34:18 1998


The original data is available from:ftp://ccel.wheaton.edu/ebooks/HTML/e/easton/ebd/


The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed. Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


      Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
      Public Domain -- Copy Freely

These Dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Due to the nature of etext, the illustrated portion of the Dictionary have not been included.


The current format has been designed for programatic reference, placing 50 topics in a file, preceeding each topic with $$topic_number, surrounding the topic name with back-slashes, References to other topics are prefixed with a ? (ascii 175) double arrow followed by the 8 byte topic number. It should be noted that it is possible to have the topic prefix followed by "(n/a)". This is due to a very small number of topic references which were unable to be resolved. These topics are: Laadan, Land Laws, Vashni.


These topics are not listed in the printed edition and it is not apparent what Mr. Eastone intended. The verse references have not been marked up or tagged for program usage. It is hoped someone will do this work and make the resulting files available to the person(s) below.


The most current and correct copies of these files can be obtained from the following. If any errors are located, please ensure you have the latest files, and if so, we would appreciate being informed of the error.


      The Bible Foundation BBS
      602-789-7040 (14.4 kbs)

   Or by contacting:

      Mark Fuller
      1129 East Loyola Drive
      Tempe, Arizona, 85282
      602-829-8542 (voice)

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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary [hitchcock]

This file was converted from the original database on:Sun Jan 4 11:34:43 1998

The original data is available from:


ftp://ccel.wheaton.edu/ebooks/HTML/bible_names/bible_names.txt


The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed. Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


   HITCHCOCK'S BIBLE NAMES DICTIONARY

This dictionary is from "Hitchcock's New and Complete Analysis of the Holy Bible," published in the late 1800s. It contains more than 2,500 Bible and Bible-related proper names and their meanings. Some Hebrew words of uncertain meaning have been left out. It is out of copyright, so feel free to copy and distribute it. I pray it will help in your study of God's Word. --Brad Haugaard


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U.S. Gazetteer (1990) [gazetteer]

This file was converted from the original database on: Sun Jul 20 11:25:17 1997


The original data is available from:


    ftp://ftp.census.gov:/pub/tiger/tms/gazetteer/places.zip
    ftp://ftp.census.gov:/pub/tiger/tms/gazetteer/mcds.zip
    ftp://ftp.census.gov:/pub/tiger/tms/gazetteer/counties.zip
    ftp://ftp.census.gov:/pub/tiger/tms/gazetteer/zips.zip

The original U.S. Gazetteer Place and Zipcode Files are provided by the U.S. Census Bureau and are in the Public Domain.


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The CIA World Factbook (1995) [world95]


This file was converted from the original database on: Mon Jul 13 02:12:37 1998

The original data is available from:


ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/etext/gutenberg/etext96/world95.zip


The original data was distributed with the notice shown below. No additional restrictions are claimed. Please redistribute this changed version under the same conditions and restriction that apply to the original version.


Publication Information for The World Factbook 1995


The printed version of the Factbook is published annually in July by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information was provided by the American Geophysical Union, Bureau of the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Defense Mapping Agency, Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Maritime Administration, National Science Foundation (Polar Information Program), Naval Maritime Intelligence Center, Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Board on Geographic Names, US Coast Guard, and others.


    Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:

    Central Intelligence Agency
    Attn.: Office of Public and Agency Information
    Washington, DC 20505
    Telephone: [1] (703) 351-2053

US Government officials should obtain copies of The World Factbook directly from their own organization or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes.


    This publication may be purchased by telephone (VISA or MasterCard) or mail from:

    Superintendent of Documents
    P.O. Box 371954
    Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
    Telephone: [1] (202) 512-1800

    A subscription to this publication may be purchased from:

    Document Expediting (DOCEX) Project
    Exchange and Gift Division
    Library of Congress
    Washington, DC 20540
    Telephone: [1] (202) 707-9527

This publication may be purchased in printed form, photocopy, microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes from:


    National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161
    Telephone: [1] (703) 487-4650

    This publication may be purchased in photocopy or microform from:

    Photoduplication Service Library of Congress
    Washington, DC 20540-5234
    Telephone: [1] (202) 707-5640
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Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions, Fourth Edition.


1. The Content is a copyrighted work of McGraw-Hill and McGraw-Hill reserves all rights in and to the Content.


2. The user is receiving only a limited right to use the Content for user's own internal or personal use. The user may not reproduce, forward, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the Content or in any way commingle the Content with other third party content, without McGraw-Hill's consent.


3. THE MCGRAW-HILL CONTENT IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS. NEITHER MCGRAW-HILL NOR ITS LICENSORS MAKE ANY GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE AS TO ANY MCGRAW-HILL CONTENT OR THE INFORMATION THEREIN OR ANY WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, CURRENTNESS, OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM ACCESSING OR USING THE MCGRAW-HILL CONTENT, OR ANY MATERIAL REFERENCED IN SUCH CONTENT OR ANY INFORMATION ENTERED INTO LICENSEE'S PRODUCT BY USERS OR OTHER PERSONS AND/OR ANY MATERIAL AVAILABLE ON OR THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE LICENSEE'S PRODUCT (INCLUDING VIA ANY HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE) OR AS TO NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. ANY WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ARE DISCLAIMED. ANY MATERIAL OR DATA OBTAINED THROUGH USE OF THE MCGRAW-HILL CONTENT IS AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK AND USER UNDERSTANDS THAT IT WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY RESULTING DAMAGE TO ITS COMPUTER SYSTEM OR LOSS OF DATA.


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