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How should I cite an article? A book? Online resources?

Basic rules for print citations:

  1. Authors' names are inverted (last name first); if a work has more than one author, invert only the first author's name, follow it with a comma, then continue listing the rest of the authors.
  2. If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order them alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first.
  3. When an author appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group, list solo-author entries first.
  4. If no author is given for a particular work, alphabetize by the title of the piece and use a shortened version of the title for parenthetical citations.

  5. Examples:
    Ehrlich, Eugene, The Highly Selective Dictionary for the Extraordinarily Literate, New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
    Chapman, Robert L. and Barbara Ann Kipfer, Dictionary of American Slang, Third Edition, New York: HarperCollins, 1998.
  6. The first line of each entry in your list should be flush left. Subsequent lines should be indented one-half inch. This is known as a hanging indent.
  7. All references should be double-spaced.
  8. Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc. This rule does not apply to articles, short prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle. Underline or italicize titles of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and films.

  9. Examples:
    Kipfer, Barbara Ann, "Towards the Onomasiological Dictionary: The Use of the Computer in Providing Diversified Access", Doctor of Philosophy in Linguistics dissertation, University of Exeter, 1989.
    Kipfer, Barbara Ann, "Dictionaries and the Intermediate Student: Communicative Needs and the Development of User Reference Skills", in The Dictionary and the Language Learner, edited by Anthony Cowie, Lexicographic Series Maior 17, Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1987: 44-54.

Basic Rules for citing online Resources:

(The following is a summary of the guidelines that cover online resources from the World Wide Web, according to the MLA Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd edition), New York: Modern Language Association, 1998 and the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th edition), New York: Modern Language Association, 2003. Also see http://www.mla.org/. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/) has a good online guide to using Modern Language Association (MLA) format.)

  1. Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator of the source (if available and relevant), reversed for alphabetizing and followed by an abbreviation, such as "ed.," if appropriate.
  2. Title of a poem, short story, article, or similar short work within a scholarly project, database, or periodical (in quotation marks); or title of a posting to a discussion list or forum (taken from the subject line and put in quotation marks), followed by the description "Online posting."
  3. Title of a book (underlined).
  4. Name of the editor, compiler, or translator of the text (if relevant and if not cited earlier), preceded by the appropriate abbreviation, such as "Ed."
  5. Publication information for any print version of the source.
  6. Title of the scholarly project, database, periodical, or professional or personal site (underlined); or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as "Home page."
  7. Name of the editor of the scholarly project or database (if available).
  8. Version number of the source (if not part of the title) or, for a journal, the volume number, issue number, or other identifying number.
  9. Date of electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting.
  10. For a work from a subscription service, the name of the service and--if a library is the subscriber--the name and city (and state abbreviation, if necessary) of the library.
  11. For a posting to a discussion list or forum, the name of the list or forum.
  12. The number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or other sections, if they are numbered.
  13. Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site.
  14. Date when the researcher accessed the source.
  15. Electronic address, or URL, of the source (in angle brackets); or, for a subscription service, the URL of the service's main page (if known) or the keyword assigned by the service.
  16. For e-mail, include the sender's name, title (if any), "E-mail to author," and date.

  17. Examples:
    Author's Name (if given) "Title of Page." Name of Database or Project. Date of posting or update. Name of Organization. Date of access <Electronic address or URL>.
    Author's Name. "Article Title." Periodical Title Date: Page(s). Title of Database. CD-ROM. Publication Date. Category, Year, Media Nos.
    Sender's Name. "Title." Date of posting. "Online posting." Type of Group. Availability. Date of access.

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