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What is redundancy in writing?

Samuel Johnson wrote that writers should "avoid ponderous ponderosity." Redundancy refers to the use of language that can be eliminated without incurring a loss of meaning. Redundancy (or tautology) is the adding of words or phrases that add nothing to the overall meaning because their senses have already been expressed. Redundancy in writing usually comes from these sources: 1) Wordy phrases, for example: "in view of the fact that" instead of "since" or "because"; 2) Employing obvious qualifiers when a word is implicit in the word it is modifying, such as "completely finish," e.g., If you have incompletely finished something, you haven't finished it at all; and 3) Using two or more synonyms together, as in "thoughts and ideas." We hear many phrases spoken each day that are redundant: same exact, advance planning, mix together, actual fact. We all could use more diligence in weeding out redundancies in our writing - and speech.

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