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How can I figure out what a Roman numeral stands for?

You add the numbers together if numbers of the same size are placed next to each other or if a smaller number is placed to the right of a larger number. For example:

  • II = 2
  • III = 3
  • VI = 6
  • VIII = 8
  • XX = 20
  • XXI = 21
  • CC = 200

You subtract the smaller number from the larger if a smaller number is placed to the left of a larger number. For example:

  • IV = 4
  • IX = 9
  • XL = 40
  • CD = 400
  • CM = 900

Sometimes you will perform both operations:

  • XIV = 14
  • XIX = 19
  • XXIV = 24
  • XCI = 91
  • XCIX = 99
  • MCM = 1900
  • MCMXLVII = 1947
  • MCML = 1950
  • MCMLXVIII = 1968
  • MCMLXXIX = 1979
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