Definition/Meaning | Word/Phrase |
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(statistics) a theorem describing how the conditional probability of a set of possible causes for a given observed event can be computed from knowledge of the probability of each cause and the conditional probability of the outcome of each cause | Bayes' theorem |

theoretical distribution of the number of successes in a finite set of independent trials with a constant probability of success | Bernoulli distribution , binomial distribution |

French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist; invented an adding machine; contributed (with Fermat) to the theory of probability (1623-1662) | Blaise Pascal , Pascal |

evaluation by a rating company of the probability that a particular bond issue will default | bond rating |

proceeded with after judging the probability of success or failure | calculated |

probability that an event will occur given that one or more other events have occurred | conditional probability , contingent probability |

entropy calculated from the probability that a state could be reached by chance alone | conformational entropy |

(physics) the probability that a particular interaction (as capture or ionization) will take place between particles; measured in barns | cross section |

attribute of stochastic systems; generally, a system that tends in probability to a limiting form that is independent of the initial conditions | ergodicity |

(geology) the probability that an earthquake will generate a level of ground motion that exceeds a specified reference level during a given exposure time | exceedance |

quality of exceeding the appropriate limits of decorum or probability or truth | extravagance , extravagancy |

reasonable probability of success | fair chance , sporting chance |

French mathematician who founded number theory; contributed (with Pascal) to the theory of probability (1601-1665) | Fermat , Pierre de Fermat |

commonsense rule (or set of rules) intended to increase the probability of solving some problem | heuristic , heuristic program , heuristic rule |

probability of two events occurring together | joint probability |

French mathematician and astronomer who formulated the nebular hypothesis concerning the origins of the solar system and who developed the theory of probability (1749-1827) | Laplace , Marquis de Laplace , Pierre Simon de Laplace |

probability of a specified outcome | likelihood , likeliness |

actuarial table indicating life expectancy and probability of death as a function or age and sex and occupation etc | mortality table |

expressing duty, shortcoming, or probability | ought |

theoretical distribution that is a good approximation to the binomial distribution when the probability is small and the number of trials is large | Poisson distribution |

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