chromosomes

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Definition/MeaningWord/Phrase
direct method of cell division characterized by simple division of the nucleus without formation of chromosomes amitosis
(genetics) an organism or cell having a diploid set of chromosomes from each parent amphidiploid
stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle anaphase
male parthenogenesis in which the embryo contains only paternal chromosomes due to the failure of the egg nucleus to participate in fertilization androgenesis , androgeny
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; appear in pairs in body cells but as single chromosomes in spermatozoa autosome , somatic chromosome
readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes chromatin , chromatin granule
any change in the normal structure or number of chromosomes; often results in physical or mental abnormalities chromosomal aberration , chromosomal anomaly , chromosonal disorder , chrosomal abnormality
interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis crossing over , crossover
branch of biology that studies the cellular aspects of heredity (especially the chromosomes) cytogenetics
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number diploid
mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes gamete
ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism genome
protoplasm of the germ cells that contains chromosomes and genes germ plasm , plasm
female parthenogenesis in which the embryo contains only maternal chromosomes due to the failure of the sperm to fuse with the egg nucleus gynogenesis
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes haploid
appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes) karyotype
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random law of independent assortment
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair law of segregation
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes mitosis
meiosis in which there is a failure of paired homologous chromosomes to separate; results in an abnormal number of chromosomes in the daughter cells nondisjunction
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