Definition/Meaning  Word/Phrase 
integer that divides two (or more) other integers evenly 
common divisor
,
common factor
,
common measure

quotient of two integers 
common fraction
,
simple fraction

integer that is a multiple of two or more other integers 
common multiple

(computer science) a register whose contents go through a regular series of states (usually states indicating consecutive integers) 
counter

one of two or more integers that can be exactly divided into another integer 
divisor
,
factor

product of all the integers up to and including a given integer 
factorial

largest integer that divides without remainder into a set of integers 
greatest common divisor
,
greatest common factor
,
highest common factor

square matrix of n rows and columns; the first n^2 integers are arranged in the cells of the matrix in such a way that the sum of any row or column or diagonal is the same 
magic square

integer that can be divided without remainder into the difference between two other integers 
modulus

(mathematics) a relation between a pair of integers: if both integers are odd or both are even they have the same parity; if one is odd and the other is even they have different parity 
parity

number expressed as an integer or quotient of integers 
rational number

number that is integer or quotient of integers, whole number or fraction 
rational number

(chemistry) the relation between the quantities of substances that take part in a reaction or form a compound (typically a ratio of whole integers) 
stoichiometry
