Definition/Meaning  Word/Phrase 
mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number 
0
,
cipher
,
cypher
,
nought
,
zero

mathematical system using letters to figure out the relationship of numbers 
algebra

variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value determines the dependent variable; if f(x) 
argument

mathematical operation involving numbers 
arithmetic operation

coming near a mathematical average 
average

mathematical mean 
average

Swiss physicist who contributed to hydrodynamics and mathematical physics (17001782) 
Bernoulli
,
Daniel Bernoulli

two mathematical terms joined by a plus or minus sign 
binomial

small machine that is used for mathematical calculations 
calculating machine
,
calculator

procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods 
calculation
,
computation
,
computing

instrument used for mathematical figuring 
calculator

number of elements in a mathematical set; denotes a quantity but not the order 
cardinal
,
cardinal number

United States electrical engineer who pioneered mathematical communication theory (19162001) 
Claude E. Shannon
,
Claude Elwood Shannon
,
Claude Shannon
,
Shannon

number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context 
constant

mathematical operation 
conversion

(statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends in the independent variable; if f(x) 
dependent variable

proof by mathematical process 
derivation

result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx 
derivative
,
derived function
,
differential
,
differential coefficient
,
first derivative

mathematical sum 
differential

mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function 
differentiation
