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Italian pope from 1676 to 1689 whose papacy was marked by the struggle with Louis XIV of France over papal authority over French Catholics; known for saintliness and canonized in 1956 (1611-1689) Benedetto Odescalchi , Innocent XI
papal letter not as formal as bull brief
German pope from 1049 to 1054 whose papacy was the beginning of papal reforms in the 11th century (1002-1054) Bruno , Bruno of Toul , Leo IX
papal bull's round seal bulla
round leaden seal affixed to a papal bull bulla
Italian antipope from 1080 to 1100 who was installed as pope by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV who consistently opposed efforts at papal reform (died in 1100) Clement III , Guibert of Ravenna
Italian pope from 1700 to 1721 who condemned Jansenist ideas on papal infallibility Clement XI , Giovanni Francesco Albani
Italian financier and statesman and friend of the papal court (1389-1464) Cosimo de Medici , Cosimo the Elder
papal court curia , rota , see
papal letter with decision on point of law decretal
(Roman Catholic Church) a priest who is an honorary member of the papal household domestic prelate
papal letter to bishops of a country or countries encyclical
(Christianity) holding views that disagree with accepted doctrine; especially disagreement with papal infallibility errancy
Crusade under papal control from 1218 to 1221 that achieved military victories but failed when dissension arose over accepting the terms they had been offered Fifth Crusade
religious movement originating among the French Roman Catholic clergy that favored the restriction of papal control and the achievement by each nation of individual administrative autonomy of the church Gallicanism
Italian pope from 1775 to 1799 who served during the French Revolution; Napoleon attacked the Papal States and in 1797 Pius VI was taken to France where he died (1717-1799) Giannangelo Braschi , Giovanni Angelo Braschi , Pius VI
annual contribution made by Roman Catholics to support the papal see hearth money , Peter's pence
political entity in Europe that began with the papal coronation of Otto I as the first emperor in 962 and lasted until 1806 when it was dissolved by Napoleon Holy Roman Empire
Italian pope from 1198 to 1216 who instituted the Fourth Crusade and under whom papal intervention in European politics reached its height (1161-1216) Innocent III , Lotario di Segni
agreement signed in the Lateran Palace in 1929 by Italy and the Holy See which recognized the Vatican City as a sovereign and independent papal state Lateran Treaty
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