Definition/Meaning  Word/Phrase 
argument, to cite as example or proof in 
adduce

discussant who offers an example or a reason or a proof 
adducer

citing as evidence or proof 
adducing

religion on the basis that there is no proof that God exists, rejection of 
agnosticism

Egyptian polymath (born in Iraq) whose research in geometry and optics was influential into the 17th century; established experiments as the norm of proof in physics (died in 1040) 
AlHasan ibn alHaytham
,
alHaytham
,
Alhacen
,
Alhazen
,
Ibn alHaytham

set forth without proof 
allege

state without proof 
allege

declare without proof 
allege

claim without or before proof 
allege

proof, supposed but without 
alleged
,
hypothetical

Italian who was a Benedictine monk; was archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109; one of the founders of scholasticism; best known for his proof of the existence of God 
Anselm
,
Saint Anselm
,
St. Anselm

unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence 
article of faith
,
conviction
,
strong belief

(logic) a proposition that is not susceptible of proof or disproof; its truth is assumed to be selfevident 
axiom

proof, selfevident 
axiomatic

obvious and needing no proof 
axiomatic
,
selfevident
,
selfexplanatory

demand for proof 
challenge

demand proof 
challenge

additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct 
check
,
confirmation
,
substantiation
,
verification

proof for another proposition, proposition that follows using existing 
corollary

(logic) an inference that follows directly from the proof of another proposition 
corollary
