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Italian pope from 1534 to 1549 who excommunicated Henry VIII of England in 1538 and initiated the Council of Trent in 1545; was active in the Counter Reformation and promoted the Society of Jesus for this purpose (1468-1549) Alessandro Farnese , Paul III
surgery concerned with therapeutic or cosmetic reformation of tissue anaplasty , plastic surgery , reconstructive surgery
Italian pope from 1566 to 1572 who led the reformation of the Roman Catholic Church; he excommunicated Elizabeth I (1504-1572) Antonio Ghislieri , Pius V
Anglican service book of the Church of England; has had several revisions since the Reformation and is widely admired for the dignity and beauty of its language Book of Common Prayer
first wife of Henry VIII; Henry's divorce from her was the initial step of the Reformation in England (1485-1536) Catherine , Catherine of Aragon
document that spells out the belief system of a given church (especially the Reformation churches of the 16th century) confession
council in 1311-1313 that dealt with alleged crimes of the Knights Templar, planned a new crusade, and took on the reformation of the clergy Council of Vienne , Vienne
reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected); many leaders were Jesuits Counter Reformation
reformation intended to counter the results of a prior reformation counterreformation
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe; although his criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther (1466-1536) Desiderius Erasmus , Erasmus , Geert Geerts , Gerhard Gerhards
son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547; his divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and his excommunication 1538, leading to the start of the Reformation in England (1491-1547) Henry VIII
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531) Huldreich Zwingli , Ulrich Zwingli , Zwingli
Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation; he questioned the infallibility of the Catholic Church was excommunicated (1409) for attacking the corruption of the clergy; he was burned at the stake (1372-1415) Hus , Huss , Jan Hus , John Huss
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus; a leading opponent of the Reformation (1491-1556) Ignatius of Loyola , Loyola , Saint Ignatius of Loyola , St. Ignatius of Loyola
Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen; it is strongly committed to education and scholarship Jesuit order , Society of Jesus
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572) John Knox , Knox
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384) John Wickliffe , John Wiclif , John Wyclif , John Wycliffe , Wickliffe , Wiclif , Wyclif , Wycliffe
German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546) Luther , Martin Luther
German theologian and Luther's successor as leader of the Reformation in Germany (1497-1560) Melanchthon , Philipp Melanchthon , Philipp Schwarzerd
king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I; he supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) Philip II , Philip II of Spain
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