mounted projectile-firing guns or missile launchers, mobile or stationary, light or heavy, as distinguished from small arms.
the troops or the branch of an army concerned with the use and service of such weapons.
the science that treats of the use of such weapons.

1350–1400; Middle English artil(le)rie, artelry, art(u)ry armaments, ballistic engines < Anglo-French, Middle French artillerie, equivalent to Old French artill(ier) to equip, arm, alteration, by association with art art1, of atill(i)er to set in order, put on armor (< Vulgar Latin *apticulāre, derivative of Latin aptāre to put on (armor, ornaments, etc.; see adapt); -i- for expected -ei- perhaps by association with atirier; see attire) + -erie -ery Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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World English Dictionary
artillery (ɑːˈtɪlərɪ)
1.  guns, cannon, howitzers, mortars, etc, of calibre greater than 20 mm
2.  troops or military units specializing in using such guns
3.  the science dealing with the use of guns
4.  devices for discharging heavy missiles, such as catapults or slings
[C14: from Old French artillerie, from artillier to equip with weapons, of uncertain origin]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

late 14c., "warlike munitions," from O.Fr. artillerie (14c.), from artillier "to provide with engines of war" (13c.), which probably is from M.L. articulum "art, skill," dim. of L. ars (gen. artis) "art." But some would connect it with L. articulum "joint," and still others with O.Fr. atillier "to equip,"
altered by infl. of arte. Sense of "engines for discharging missiles" (catapults, slings, bows, etc.) is from late 15c.; that of "ordnance, large guns" is from 1530s.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Bible Dictionary

Artillery definition

1 Sam. 20:40, (Heb. keli, meaning "apparatus;" here meaning collectively any missile weapons, as arrows and lances. In Revised Version, "weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin artillaria = equipment of war.

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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Example sentences
They have advance warning of raids and all main leaders, artillery and military hardware is relocated in advance.
The government, flush with money from oil exports, attacked with planes and
Such correction tables would be relatively simpler than similar tables used in
  artillery and naval practice.
Entire buildings are being shelled with heavy artillery.
Image for artillery
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