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[nee-an-der-thawl, -tawl, -tahl; ney-ahn-der-tahl]
of or relating to Neanderthal man.
(often lowercase) Informal. primitive, unenlightened, or reactionary; culturally or intellectually backward.
(often lowercase) Informal.
an unenlightened or ignorant person; barbarian.
a reactionary; a person with very old-fashioned ideas.
Also, Neandertal [nee-an-der-tawl, -tahl, ney-ahn-der-tahl] , (for defs 1, 3).

1860–65; after Neanderthal, valley in Germany, near Düsseldorf, where evidence of Neanderthal man was first found

Neanderthaler, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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World English Dictionary
Neanderthal (nɪˈændəˌtɑːl)
1.  relating to or characteristic of Neanderthal man
2.  primitive; uncivilized
3.  informal ultraconservative; reactionary
4.  a person showing any such characteristics

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1861, from Ger. Neanderthal "Neander Valley," gorge near Düsseldorf where humanoid fossils were identified in 1856. The place name is from the Graecized form of Joachim Neumann (lit. "new man," Gk. *neo-ander), 1650-1680, Ger. pastor, poet and hymn-writer, who made this a favorite spot in the 1670s.
Adopting a classical form of one's surname was a common practice among educated Germans in this era.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
Neanderthal (nē-ān'dər-thôl', -tôl') or Neandertal   (nē-ān'dər-thôl', -tôl')  Pronunciation Key 
An extinct variety of human that lived throughout Europe and in parts of western Asia and northern Africa during the late Pleistocene Epoch, until about 30,000 years ago. Neanderthals had a stocky build and large skulls with thick eyebrow ridges and big teeth. They usually lived in caves, made flaked stone tools, and were the earliest humans known to bury their dead. Neanderthals were either a subspecies of modern humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) or a separate, closely related species (Homo neanderthalensis). They coexisted with early modern humans (Cro-Magnons) for several thousand years before becoming extinct, but are not generally believed to have interbred with them. See also Mousterian.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
Neanderthal [(nee-an-duhr-thawl, nee-an-duhr-tawl)]

The ancient and now extinct relatives of modern humans. Neanderthals lived in Europe about 150,000 years ago and were the earliest form of the human species, Homo sapiens.

Note: The term Neanderthal is sometimes used to refer to a person who is thought to have primitive or unenlightened ideas: “I tried talking politics to Joe, but he's a real Neanderthal.”
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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