Bibliographies

  • A bibliography typically lists all the works consulted in preparing a manuscript as well as the works cited in notes. Bibliography format is also used for any list of titles, such as recommended readings. Some word processing programs may offer a template for bibliographies, but many do not.
  • The bibliography should start on a new page headed BIBLIOGRAPHY (or another appropriate title) in boldface caps and centered. Each entry starts at the left and each entry should have a hanging indent of .5 inches. Leave a blank line between entries, no matter whether the bibliography is single- or double-spaced.
  • Entries are listed alphabetically by author's last name. Entries without an author are alphabetized by title, disregarding the words The or A. If the title begins with a figure, alphabetize on the basis of how the figure would appear if spelled out. There is no need to number the bibliography entries unless you use textnotes that are numbered to reference full entries in the bibliography.
  • The conventions for page setup are: 6 blank lines before BIBLIOGRAPHY, 2-3 blank lines after BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1 inch left margin, 1 inch right margin, blank line inbetween each bibliographic entry.
  • When there is more than one work by the same author, replace the author's name with a long dash (three em dashes or six hyphens) in all entries after the first. List the works alphabetically by title. Alternatively, multiple entries of the same author may be listed chronologically.
  • Bibliographic entries have the same elements and follow the same style as source reference notes except for two differences:
    1. Each entry begins with the author's name in inverted order (last name first). When a work has two or more authors, only the first author's name is inverted. An organization as the author is not inverted.
    2. Only include page numbers when the material being cited is part of a larger work.
  • Academic-style bibliographies, however, have a different style: A period follows each of the three main parts of the entry - author's name, the title, and the publishing information.
  • There are no parentheses around the publishing information in an academic-style bibliographic entry.






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