Online Sources

URL Addresses

  • For online addresses or URLs (Uniform Resource Locator), list the protocol (HTTP, FTP, Listserv, Usenet, Gopher, Telnet), followed by :// and the host name. The host name has its elements separated by dots. Examples are http://www.google.com/, http://dictionary.reference.com/.
  • You should list the online address as it appears for the page or pages you are referring to.
  • A URL may also provide a file name as the final element as well as a path name.
  • URLs are usually typed in all lowercase, but follow the style of the particular URL as it appears for the page or pages you are referring to.

E-Mail Addresses

For e-mail addresses, list the mailbox, the at sign (@), and the domain name. Examples are jobs@google.com, webmaster@lexico.com.

General Guidelines

  • Keep a hard copy or backup copy of the online sources you use.
  • You will need the date the online source was created as well as the date on which you accessed the material. Citations will include both since material on the Internet changes or is removed and this data will prove the accuracy of your citation.
  • Enclose a URL address or e-mail address in angle brackets (< >) in footnotes, endnotes, textnotes, and bibliographies. Present each exactly as it appears online.
  • Try to fit a URL address on one line in the manuscript. If it does not fit, break it after the double slash (//) or before a mark of punctuation (such as a dot, single slash, hyphen, or underscore).
  • Try to fit an e-mail address on one line in the manuscript. If it does not fit, break it before the at (@) sign or before a dot.

Citations for Online Sources

The main difference between conventional sources and online sources is that the name and location of the publisher of a printed work are replaced by URLs or e-mail addresses enclosed in angle brackets (< >).

World Wide Web Sources

Author's name, "title of document," title of complete work, date of posting," <URL> (date of access).

E-Mail Sources

Author's name <author's e-mail address>, "subject line," date of posting [or n.d. if date of posting cannot be determined], type of email [personal e-mail, office communication] (date of access).

Listserv Sources

Author's name <author's e-mail address>, "subject line," date of posting [or n.d.], <URL> (date of access).

Usenet Sources

Author's name <author's e-mail address>, "subject line," date of posting [or n.d.], <URL> (date of access).

FTP Sources

Author's name, "title of document," date of posting [or n.d.], <URL> (date of access).

Gopher Sources

Author's name, "title of document," date of posting [or n.d.], <URL> (date of access).

Telnet Sources

Author's name, "title of document," title of complete work, date of posting [or n.d.], <URL> (date of access).






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