|berlin (bəˈlɪn, ˈbɜːlɪn, bəˈliːn, ˈbɜːliːn)|
|1.||(sometimes capital) Also called: berlin wool a fine wool yarn used for tapestry work, etc|
|2.||a four-wheeled two-seated covered carriage, popular in the 18th century|
|3.||a limousine with a glass partition between the front and rear seats|
|[C18: named after |
|Berlin1 (bɜːˈlɪn, German bɛrˈliːn)|
|the capital of Germany (1871--1945 and from 1990), formerly divided (1945--90) into the eastern sector, capital of East Germany, and the western sectors, which formed an exclave in East German territory closely affiliated with West Germany: a wall dividing the sectors was built in 1961 by the East German authorities to stop the flow of refugees from east to west; demolition of the wall began in 1989 and the city was formally reunited in 1990: formerly (1618--1871) the capital of Brandenburg and Prussia. Pop: 3 388 477 (2003 est)|
|1.||Irving. original name Israel Baline, 1888--1989, US composer and writer of lyrics, born in Russia. His musical comedies include Annie Get Your Gun (1946); his most popular song is White Christmas|
|2.||Sir Isaiah. 1909--97, British philosopher, born in Latvia, historian, and diplomat. His books include Historical Inevitability (1954) and The Magus of the North (1993)|
|East Germany See also West Germany German name: Deutschland, Official name: Federal Republic of Germany a country in central Europe: in the Middle Ages the centre of the Holy Roman Empire; dissolved into numerous principalities; united under the leadership of Prussia in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War; became a republic with reduced size in 1919 after being defeated in World War I; under the dictatorship of Hitler from 1933 to 1945; defeated in World War II and divided by the Allied Powers into four zones, which became established as East and West Germany in the late 1940s; reunified in 1990: a member of the European Union. It is flat and low-lying in the north with plateaus and uplands (including the Black Forest and the Bavarian Alps) in the centre and south. Official language: German. Religion: Christianity, Protestant majority. Currency: euro. Capital: Berlin. Pop: 82 526 000 (2004 est). Area: 357 041 sq km (137 825 sq miles)Related: Teutonic|
Capital of reunited Germany, located in the northeastern part of the country.
Note: Formerly the capital of Prussia and then of Germany, Berlin was occupied by American, British, French, and Soviet troops after World War II. Disagreements among the Allies led to the partition of the city, with the Soviet zone becoming East Berlin, and the other zones West Berlin. East Berlin became the capital of the communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany), but West Berlin lost its capital status to Bonn in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
Note: The Berlin Airlift of 1948–1949 supplied West Berlin by air transport after the Soviet Union set up a land and water blockade in an attempt to gain political control of this noncommunist “island” in the midst of communist East Germany.
Note: The two Berlins were physically separated by the Berlin Wall, a barrier designed to prevent East Germans from crossing into West Berlin, from 1961 to 1989.
Note: With the reunification of the two Germanys in 1990, the reunified city of Berlin was restored to its place as Germany's capital.
Note: Germany was a collection of competing states until it was unified during the second half of the nineteenth century under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck.
Note: Germany's industrial, colonial, and naval expansion was considered a threat by the British and French and was one of the main causes of World War I, in which Germany was badly defeated.
Note: After the defeat of the Nazis in World War II, Germany was divided into four zones occupied by British, French, Soviet, and American forces.
Note: Since reunification Germany has become Europe's leading economic power. (See East Germany and West Germany under “World History since 1550.”)