Caledonia

Collins
World English Dictionary
Caledonia (ˌkælɪˈdəʊnɪə)
 
n
the Roman name for Scotland
 
usage  Caledonia is now used poetically and, sometimes, humorously

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

Caledonia
Roman name of part of northern Britain, taken from the name of former inhabitants, of unknown origin, perhaps Celtic; since 18c, applied poetically to Scotland or the Scottish Highlands.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

caledonia

historical area of north Britain beyond Roman control, roughly corresponding to modern Scotland. It was inhabited by the tribe of Caledones (Calidones). The Romans first invaded the district under Agricola about AD 80 and later won a decisive battle at Mons Graupius. They established a legionary fortress at Inchtuthil (near Dunkeld, in Perth and Kinross district, Tayside region) as well as several auxiliary forts in strategic highland passes. But they were forced to evacuate Inchtuthil and all the sites north of the Earn River about AD 90 and all of Scotland during the rule of Trajan (AD 98-117).

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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