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Land (state) of western Germany. It is bordered by the states of Lower Saxony to the north and northeast, Hessen to the east, and Rhineland-Palatinate to the south and by the countries of Belgium to the southwest and The Netherlands to the west. The state of North Rhine-Westphalia was created in 1946 through the amalgamation of the former Prussian province of Westphalia and the northern portion of the Prussian Rhine province; the former state of Lippe was incorporated in 1947. (See also Lippe; Rhineland; Westphalia.) The principalities that existed until about 1800 in the area are recalled by regional names: Munsterland in the north, Sauerland in the southeast, and Berg in the vicinity of the cities of Dusseldorf and Cologne. The state capital is Dusseldorf